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    The Fluidity of Science | विज्ञान की तरलता


       The Fluidity of Science | विज्ञान की तरलता


     

                                  Gender Norms & Racial Bias in the Study of the Modern "Science"

    विज्ञान एक व्यवस्थित उद्यम है जो ब्रह्मांड के बारे में परीक्षण योग्य स्पष्टीकरण और भविष्यवाणियों के रूप में ज्ञान का निर्माण और आयोजन करता है। विज्ञान की शुरुआती जड़ों का पता प्राचीन मिस्र और मेसोपोटामिया से लगभग 3500 से 3000 ईसा पूर्व में लगाया जा सकता है। गणित, खगोल विज्ञान और चिकित्सा में उनका योगदान शास्त्रीय पुरातनता के ग्रीक प्राकृतिक दर्शन में प्रवेश किया और आकार दिया, जिससे प्राकृतिक कारणों के आधार पर भौतिक दुनिया में घटनाओं की व्याख्या प्रदान करने के लिए औपचारिक प्रयास किए गए। लेकिन इस्लामिक स्वर्ण युग के दौरान मुस्लिम दुनिया में संरक्षित था। 10 वीं से 13 वीं शताब्दी में पश्चिमी यूरोप में ग्रीक कार्यों और इस्लामी पूछताछ की वसूली और आत्मसात "प्राकृतिक दर्शन" को पुनर्जीवित किया, जिसे बाद में 16 वीं शताब्दी में शुरू हुई वैज्ञानिक क्रांति द्वारा नए विचारों और खोजों के रूप में बदल दिया गया था जो पिछली ग्रीक अवधारणाओं से विदा हो गए थे। परंपराओं। वैज्ञानिक पद्धति ने जल्द ही ज्ञान सृजन में एक बड़ी भूमिका निभाई और यह 19 वीं शताब्दी तक नहीं था कि विज्ञान की कई संस्थागत और पेशेवर विशेषताएं आकार लेने लगीं; आधुनिक विज्ञान को आमतौर पर तीन प्रमुख शाखाओं में विभाजित किया जाता है जिसमें प्राकृतिक विज्ञान शामिल हैं, जो व्यापक अर्थों में प्रकृति का अध्ययन करते हैं; सामाजिक विज्ञान, जो व्यक्तियों और समाजों का अध्ययन करता है; और औपचारिक विज्ञान, जो अमूर्त अवधारणाओं का अध्ययन करते हैं। हालांकि, असहमति है कि क्या औपचारिक विज्ञान वास्तव में एक विज्ञान का गठन करते हैं क्योंकि वे अनुभवजन्य साक्ष्य पर भरोसा नहीं करते हैं। व्यावहारिक उद्देश्यों के लिए मौजूदा वैज्ञानिक ज्ञान का उपयोग करने वाले अनुशासन, जैसे कि इंजीनियरिंग और चिकित्सा, को लागू विज्ञान के रूप में वर्णित किया जाता है। विज्ञान अनुसंधान पर आधारित है, जो आमतौर पर शैक्षणिक और अनुसंधान संस्थानों के साथ-साथ सरकारी एजेंसियों और कंपनियों में आयोजित किया जाता है। वैज्ञानिक अनुसंधान के व्यावहारिक प्रभाव से विज्ञान नीतियों का उदय हुआ है जो व्यावसायिक उत्पादों, आयुध, स्वास्थ्य देखभाल और पर्यावरण संरक्षण के विकास को प्राथमिकता देकर वैज्ञानिक उद्यम को प्रभावित करना चाहते हैं। इतिहास विज्ञान एक व्यापक अर्थ में आधुनिक युग से पहले और कई ऐतिहासिक सभ्यताओं में मौजूद था। आधुनिक विज्ञान अपने दृष्टिकोण में अलग है और अपने परिणामों में सफल है, इसलिए अब यह परिभाषित करता है कि विज्ञान शब्द के सबसे सख्त अर्थ में क्या है। इस तरह के ज्ञान की खोज के लिए एक विशेष शब्द के बजाय विज्ञान अपने मूल अर्थ में एक प्रकार का ज्ञान था। विशेष रूप से, यह ज्ञान का प्रकार था जिसे लोग एक दूसरे से संवाद कर सकते हैं और साझा कर सकते हैं। उदाहरण के लिए, प्राकृतिक चीजों के काम के बारे में ज्ञान दर्ज इतिहास से बहुत पहले इकट्ठा किया गया था और जटिल अमूर्त विचार के विकास के लिए प्रेरित किया गया था। यह जटिल कैलेंडर के निर्माण, जहरीले पौधों को खाने योग्य बनाने की तकनीक, राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर सार्वजनिक कार्यों, जैसे कि जलाशयों, बांधों, और डैमों, और पिरामिड जैसे भवनों के साथ यांग्त्से के बाढ़ क्षेत्र का दोहन करने के लिए दिखाया गया है। हालांकि, ऐसी चीजों के ज्ञान के बीच कोई सुसंगत सचेत भेद नहीं किया गया था, जो हर समुदाय में सच हैं, और अन्य प्रकार के सांप्रदायिक ज्ञान, जैसे कि पौराणिक कथाएं और कानूनी प्रणालियां। धातुकर्म को प्रागितिहास में जाना जाता था, और विनाका संस्कृति कांस्य जैसे मिश्र धातुओं का सबसे पहला ज्ञात निर्माता था। यह माना जाता है कि समय के साथ पदार्थों के हीटिंग और मिश्रण के साथ प्रारंभिक प्रयोग कीमिया में विकसित हुआ। प्रारंभिक संस्कृतियाँ न तो शब्दों और न ही अवधारणाओं "विज्ञान" और "प्रकृति" पूर्व के पास प्राचीन में वैचारिक परिदृश्य का हिस्सा थीं। प्राचीन मेसोपोटामियंस ने मिट्टी के बर्तनों, फ़ाइनेस, ग्लास, साबुन, धातुओं, चूने के प्लास्टर और वॉटरप्रूफिंग के लिए विभिन्न प्राकृतिक रसायनों के गुणों के बारे में ज्ञान का उपयोग किया; उन्होंने जानवरों के शरीर विज्ञान, शरीर रचना विज्ञान, और दैवीय उद्देश्यों के लिए व्यवहार का भी अध्ययन किया। मेसोपोटामियावासियों की दवा में गहन रुचि थी, फिर भी, मेसोपोटामिया के लोगों को जानकारी इकट्ठा करने के आविष्कार के लिए प्राकृतिक दुनिया के बारे में जानकारी इकट्ठा करने या खोज करने से पहले बहुत कम रुचि थी। पूर्व-सुकराती दार्शनिकों द्वारा "प्रकृति" की अवधारणा, एक ही शब्द का उपयोग प्राकृतिक "जिस तरह से" एक पौधा बढ़ता है, और "जिस तरह" उदाहरण के लिए, एक जनजाति एक विशेष देवता की पूजा करती है । इस कारण से, यह दावा किया जाता है कि ये लोग सख्त अर्थों में पहले दार्शनिक थे, और स्पष्ट रूप से पहले लोग भी भेद "प्रकृति" और "सम्मेलन।" प्राकृतिक दर्शन, प्राकृतिक विज्ञान के अग्रदूत, इस प्रकार प्रकृति और ज्ञान के रूप में प्रतिष्ठित थे जो हर समुदाय के लिए सत्य हैं, और इस तरह के ज्ञान के विशेष खोज का नाम दर्शन था - पहले दार्शनिक-भौतिकविदों का क्षेत्र। वे मुख्य रूप से सट्टेबाज या सिद्धांतकार थे, विशेष रूप से खगोल विज्ञान में रुचि रखते थे। इसके विपरीत, प्रकृति की नकल करने के लिए प्रकृति के ज्ञान का उपयोग करने की कोशिश शास्त्रीय द्वारा देखी गई थी
    वैज्ञानिक निम्न सामाजिक वर्ग के कारीगरों के लिए अधिक उपयुक्त रुचि के रूप में।
         माइल्सियन स्कूल के शुरुआती यूनानी दार्शनिक, जिसकी स्थापना थेल्स ऑफ़ मिलेटस द्वारा की गई थी और बाद में प्रतियोगिता हुई







    Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in around 3500 to 3000 BCE. Their contributions to mathematics, astronomy, and medicine entered and shaped Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, whereby formal attempts were made to provide explanations of events in the physical world based on natural causes. but was preserved in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age. The recovery and assimilation of Greek works and Islamic inquiries into Western Europe from the 10th to 13th century revived "natural philosophy", which was later transformed by the Scientific Revolution that began in the 16th century as new ideas and discoveries departed from previous Greek conceptions and traditions. The scientific method soon played a greater role in knowledge creation and it was not until the 19th century that many of the institutional and professional features of science began to take shape; Modern science is typically divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences, which study nature in the broadest sense; the social sciences, which study individuals and societies; and the formal sciences, which study abstract concepts. There is disagreement, however, on whether the formal sciences actually constitute a science as they do not rely on empirical evidence. Disciplines that use existing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, such as engineering and medicine, are described as applied sciences. Science is based on research, which is commonly conducted in academic and research institutions as well as in government agencies and companies. The practical impact of scientific research has led to the emergence of science policies that seek to influence the scientific enterprise by prioritizing the development of commercial products, armaments, health care, and environmental protection. History Science in a broad sense existed before the modern era and in many historical civilizations. Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, so it now defines what science is in the strictest sense of the term. Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge, rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge. In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to each other and share. For example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought. This is shown by the construction of complex calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible, public works at national scale, such as those which harnessed the floodplain of the Yangtse with reservoirs, dams, and dikes, and buildings such as the Pyramids. However, no consistent conscious distinction was made between knowledge of such things, which are true in every community, and other types of communal knowledge, such as mythologies and legal systems. Metallurgy was known in prehistory, and the Vinča culture was the earliest known producer of bronze-like alloys. It is thought that early experimentation with heating and mixing of substances over time developed into alchemy. Early cultures Neither the words nor the concepts "science" and "nature" were part of the conceptual landscape in the ancient near east. The ancient Mesopotamians used knowledge about the properties of various natural chemicals for manufacturing pottery, faience, glass, soap, metals, lime plaster, and waterproofing; they also studied animal physiology, anatomy, and behavior for divinatory purposes The Mesopotamians had intense interest in medicine Nonetheless, the Mesopotamians seem to have had little interest in gathering information about the natural world for the mere sake of gathering information Before the invention or discovery of the concept of "nature" by the Pre-Socratic philosophers, the same words tend to be used to describe the natural "way" in which a plant grows, and the "way" in which, for example, one tribe worships a particular god. For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense, and also the first people to clearly
    distinguish "nature" and "convention." Natural philosophy, the precursor of natural science, was thereby distinguished as the knowledge of nature and things which are true for every community, and the name of the specialized pursuit of such knowledge was philosophy – the realm of the first philosopher-physicists. They were mainly speculators or theorists, particularly interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature was seen by classical scientists as a more appropriate interest for artisans of lower social class.

          The early Greek philosophers of the Milesian school, which was founded by Thales of Miletus and later continued by his successors Anaximander and Anaximenes, were the first to attempt to explain natural phenomena without relying on the supernatural. The Pythagoreans developed a complex number philosophy and contributed significantly to the development of mathematical science. The Greek doctor Hippocrates established the tradition of systematic medical science and is known as "The Father of Medicine".

          A turning point in the history of early philosophical science was Socrates' example of applying philosophy to the study of human matters, including human nature, the nature of political communities, and human knowledge itself. The Socratic method as documented by Plato's dialogues is a dialectic method of hypothesis elimination: better hypotheses are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to contradictions. This was a reaction to the Sophist emphasis on rhetoric. The Socratic method searches for general, commonly held truths that shape beliefs and scrutinizes them to determine their consistency with other beliefs. Socrates criticized the older type of study of physics as too purely speculative and lacking in self-criticism. Socrates was later, in the words of his Apology, accused of corrupting the youth of Athens because he did "not believe in the gods the state believes in, but in other new spiritual beings". Socrates refuted these claims, but was sentenced to death. Aristotle later created a systematic programme of teleological philosophy: Motion and change is described as the actualization of potentials already in things, according to what types of things they are. In his physics, the Sun goes around the Earth, and many things have it as part of their nature that they are for humans. Each thing has a formal cause, a final cause, and a role in a cosmic order with an unmoved mover. The Socratics also insisted that philosophy should be used to consider the practical question of the best way to live for a human being . Aristotle maintained that man knows a thing scientifically "when he possesses a conviction arrived at in a certain way, and when the first principles on which that conviction rests are known to him with certainty". The Greek astronomer Aristarchus of Samos was the first to propose a heliocentric model of the universe, with the Sun at the center and all the planets orbiting it. Aristarchus's model was widely rejected because it was believed to violate the laws of physics. although his proto-calculus lacked several defining features. dealing with history, geography, medicine, astronomy, earth science, botany, and zoology. During late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, the Aristotelian approach to inquiries on natural phenomena was used. Aristotle's four causes prescribed that four "why" questions should be answered in order to explain things scientifically. Some ancient knowledge was lost, or in some cases kept in obscurity, during the fall of the Western Roman Empire and periodic political struggles. However, the general fields of science and much of the general knowledge from the ancient world remained preserved through the works of the early Latin encyclopedists like Isidore of Seville. However, Aristotle's original texts were eventually lost in Western Europe, and only one text by Plato was widely known, the Timaeus, which was the only Platonic dialogue, and one of the few original works of classical natural philosophy, available to Latin readers in the early Middle Ages. Another original work that gained influence in this period was Ptolemy's Almagest, which contains a geocentric description of the solar system. During late antiquity, in the Byzantine empire many Greek classical texts were preserved. Many Syriac translations were done by groups such as the Nestorians and Monophysites. They played a role when they translated Greek classical texts into Arabic under the Caliphate, during which many types of classical learning were preserved and in some cases improved upon. The House of Wisdom was established in Abbasid-era Baghdad, Iraq, where the Islamic study of Aristotelianism flourished. Al-Kindi was the first of the Muslim Peripatetic philosophers, and is known for his efforts to introduce Greek and Hellenistic philosophy to the Arab world. The Islamic Golden Age flourished from this time until the Mongol invasions of the 13th century. Ibn al-Haytham, as well as his predecessor Ibn Sahl, was familiar with Ptolemy's Optics, and used experiments as a means to gain knowledge. Alhazen disproved Ptolemy's theory of vision, but did not make any corresponding changes to Aristotle's metaphysics. Furthermore, doctors and alchemists such as the Persians Avicenna and Al-Razi also greatly developed the science of Medicine with the former writing the Canon of Medicine, a medical encyclopedia used until the 18th century and the latter discovering multiple compounds like alcohol. Avicenna's canon is considered to be one of the most important publications in medicine and they both contributed significantly to the practice of experimental medicine, using clinical trials and experiments to back their claims. In Classical antiquity, Greek and Roman taboos had meant that dissection was usually banned in ancient times, but in Middle Ages it changed: medical teachers and students at Bologna began to open human bodies, and Mondino de Luzzi produced the first known anatomy textbook based on human dissection. By the eleventh century most of Europe had become Christian; stronger monarchies emerged; borders were restored; technological developments and agricultural innovations were made which increased the food supply and population. In addition, classical Greek texts started to be translated from Arabic and Greek into Latin, giving a higher level of scientific discussion in Western Europe. as evidenced by its incorporation into Vitello's Perspectiva. Avicenna's Canon was translated into Latin. In particular, the texts of Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Euclid, preserved in the Houses of Wisdom and also in the Byzantine Empire, were sought amongst Catholic scholars. The influx of ancient texts caused the Renaissance of the 12th century and the flourishing of a synthesis of Catholicism and Aristotelianism known as Scholasticism in western Europe, which became a new geographic center of science. An experiment in this period would be understood as a careful process of observing, describing, and classifying. One prominent scientist in this era was Roger Bacon. Scholasticism had a strong focus on revelation and dialectic reasoning, and gradually fell out of favour over the next centuries, as alchemy's focus on experiments that include direct observation and meticulous documentation slowly increased in importance. Renaissance and early modern science New developments in optics played a role in the inception of the Renaissance, both by challenging long-held metaphysical ideas on perception, as well as by contributing to the improvement and development of technology such as the camera obscura and the telescope. Before what we now know as the Renaissance started, Roger Bacon, Vitello, and John Peckham each built up a scholastic ontology upon a causal chain beginning with sensation, perception, and finally apperception of the individual and universal forms of Aristotle. A model of vision later known as perspectivism was exploited and studied by the artists of the Renaissance. This theory uses only three of Aristotle's four causes: formal, material, and final.

        In the sixteenth century, Copernicus formulated a heliocentric model of the solar system unlike the geocentric model of Ptolemy's Almagest. This was based on a theorem that the orbital periods of the planets are longer as their orbs are farther from the centre of motion, which he found not to agree with Ptolemy's model.

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